What is desensitization and hyposensitization for allergies

Desensitization (hyposensitization) of Allergy is an effective method of dealing with this common disease.

Every year growing numbers of people with allergies. According to various estimates, some forms of this disease are observed in 20-40% of the world population. Among the reasons for the increase in the numbers of Allergy sufferers is called environmental degradation, increased consumption of foods rich in chemicals and even excessive hygiene.

In order not to suffer from unpleasant symptoms, allergies need to avoid contact with allergens. Unfortunately, it is not always possible. Potential sources of allergens surround us everywhere: at home (house dust, animal dander), nature (pollen, insects), drugs, foods.

At present there are no allergies, once and for all. Some medicines help to eliminate the symptoms, others are working, while the person continues to use them.

One of the most effective methods of treatment of allergies is specific immunotherapy. It is aimed at reducing the sensitivity of the body to the allergen. Now there are several terms that denote this method of treatment is desensitization, hyposensitization, allergogenny. Patients often call it vaccination from allergies.

Readers ‘ questions Good afternoon. Please tell me if now is the time to get a dog if the child(3years) food Allergy (allergic dermatitis) 18 October 2013, 17:25 Good afternoon. Please tell me if now is the time to get a dog if the child(3years) food Allergy (allergic dermatitis). From birth to 2.6 years we had a dog with a cat, and my grandmother has animals now (we go to visit 2-3 times a month) are not any allergic reactions were not. Now pass the examination. After the rash will be doing some tests on the allergen. Thanks for the advice. View answer

The essence of immunotherapy

Recall that an Allergy is a hypersensitivity of the immune system that occurs with repeated exposure to allergen on the body. Thus, by changing the reactivity of the immune system, you can get rid of the disease.

Immunotherapy (desensitization, hyposensitization for allergies) reduces or eliminates symptoms by correcting the disorders in the immune system. This method of treatment can be applied when other means proved ineffective, the cause of allergies is well established.

In the course of therapy in the body administered injections of allergen with a gradual increase in dose. Thus, the immune system accustom to the presence of the allergen, and it ceases to respond to it.

State of decreased sensitivity of the body to the allergen, and also a complex of measures aimed at reducing sensitivity, called desensitization. The term desensitization, which means the destruction of sensitivity is not accurate, as it is virtually impossible to achieve complete insensitivity of the body to the allergen.

Distinguish specific and nonspecific desensitization.

Specific hyposensitization

This method is based on the introduction to the patient of allergen that provoked his illness, gradually increased doses. This changes the reactivity of the organism, normalizes the function of the neuroendocrine system and metabolism. As a result, the body’s sensitivity to the allergen is reduced develops desensitization.

Allergens may be introduced by subcutaneous injection, by ingestion through the mouth, under the tongue, instillation into the eyes or nose. Every day or two, the patient is administered 0.1-0.2 ml 0.4 ml-0.8 ml of the allergen. Gradually used doses of the allergen in higher concentrations. The course of treatment depends on the type of Allergy. Thus, in hay fever the treatment should start in 4-5 months and finish 2-3 weeks before flowering of plants. If dust allergies are shown to a maintenance dose allergens 1 every 2 weeks for 3-5 years.


Nonspecific desensitization

This kind of desensitization is based on the reduction of sensitivity to the allergen by any of the factors, in addition to the use of specific allergen.

With this purpose, preparations of salicylic acid and calcium, ascorbic acid, the introduction of histaglobulina, plasma, physiotherapy (UV irradiation, electrophoresis, UHF, diathermy, etc.), health resort treatment, physiotherapy.

Who will help the desensitization

This treatment is indicated when it is impossible to avoid contact with the allergen (for example, in hay fever, Allergy to house dust). If you are allergic to insect bites is the only method of prevention and treatment of anaphylactic shock.
Patients with food or drug allergies this method is recommended in cases when it is impossible to exclude a product-provocateur of food (e.g., milk from children’s diet), and medication is vital.

The desensitization comes to the aid of people who have occupational Allergy to wool and skin of animals, but are unwilling or unable to change their place of work (e.g., veterinarians, zootechnicians).

The method is effective in infectious-allergic form of bronchial asthma.

Specific desensitization is carried out only in special rooms under the supervision of doctors-allergists.
The introduction of allergens can sometimes be accompanied by local or systemic complications up to anaphylactic shock. In such cases, the aggravation and stop or reduce the dose of the allergen, or interrupt the treatment.


Specific desensitization is contraindicated during exacerbation of underlying disease, prolonged treatment with glucocorticoids, with organic changes in the lungs in bronchial asthma, with the complication of the underlying disease rhinitis, bronchitis, sinusitis, bronchiectasis. In addition, you cannot use this method to patients with rheumatism and tuberculosis in the active phase, malignancy, circulatory insufficiency II and III degree, gastric ulcer and 12 duodenal ulcer in pregnancy.


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